Answered By: Sarah Johnson
Last Updated: May 13, 2015     Views: 107

While the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association includes abstract as one of the formatting elements to include in manuscripts submitted for publication, student work at Concordia is subject to the discretion of individual professors.  Some upper-level coursework, such as Master of Education Capstone projects, require an abstract, while some lower-level coursework might not.  Please ask your professor for clarification about their expectations regarding abstracts.

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